September 8, 2023

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James Wang and Evan Cox Coauthored a Paper on EK-BIO Remediation in Skuldelev in the Journal Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation

James Wang, PhD, PE (Maryland), and Evan Cox (Ontario) coauthored the paper “Remediating a PCE Source Area in Clay Using Electrokinetically Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation” in Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation. The paper was published on July 3, 2023.

James and Evan’s coauthors were Charolette Riis from NIRAS, Martin Bymose from Miljø- og Ingeniørfirma, and Dorte Moon Pade from Københavns Kommune.

James is a Principal Environmental Engineer with more than 25 years of experience focused on developing and applying innovative assessment and remediation technologies. He built his practice by providing clients with cost-effective solutions specifically tailored to solving their most challenging problems.

Evan is a Senior Principal Remediation Scientist with more than 25 years of experience focused on managing and directing soil and groundwater remediation projects that address emerging and recalcitrant contaminants.

Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation advances the practice of groundwater monitoring and remediation by exploring innovative research and practical solutions. Since 1981, the journal, a publication of the National Groundwater Association (NGWA), has published papers on treatment technologies, columns by industry experts, news briefs, and equipment news.

The NGWA is an industry association that brings together a community of groundwater professionals to advance knowledge and help members succeed. The association’s mission it to advance education and outreach, to advocate for members, to foster cooperation and information exchange, and to enhance professional practices.

The presence of contaminants in low-permeability silts and soils often limits success of in situ remediation techniques such as bioremediation and chemical. This is because remediation reagents cannot be effectively delivered into these materials to promote and achieve treatment. This project was a full-scale demonstration of the ability of the novel electrokinetic (EK) technique, referred to as EK-BIO, to overcome the limitations of conventional in situ bioremediation with respect to reagent delivery. Electron donor and dehalorespiring bacteria (KB-1®) were effectively and uniformly delivered throughout a tetrachloroethene (PCE) source area in clay till using the EK-BIO technique. Lactate, as electron donor, was also effectively delivered through the clay soils over the course of 720 days. A one-time bioaugmentation of the treatment area with KB-1® dehalorespiring culture was conducted within the first month of operation. Vinyl chloride reductase functional gene counts increased by several orders of magnitude in treatment area wells, and PCE dechlorination to ethene and chloride was observed at all wells in the treatment area. Remediation goals for site soil of 10 mg PCE/kg were met within 2 years of system operation. Average soil concentrations in the treatment area were reduced by 98.75 percent (PCE eq.). Rebound testing 6 months after cessation of EK-BIO operation showed sustained dechlorination and compliance with remedial goals. These results document the first large field-scale remediation of a PCE source area in clay using EK-BIO.

More Information

Learn more about the article: Remediating a PCE Source Area in Clay Using Electrokinetically Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation - Riis - 2023 - Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation - Wiley Online Library
Learn more about the organization: Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation - Wiley Online Library
For consultation regarding in situ bioremediation, contact James at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or Evan at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..
Learn more about James at: James (Yu-Sheng) Wang (
Learn more about Evan at: Evan Cox (
Read about our bioremediation work at Skuldelev: Electrokinetic-Enhanced Bioremediation of PCE Source Area in Clay (