Ramsburg, C.A. Abriola, L.M., Pennell, K.D., Lšffler, F.E., Gamache, M., Amos, B.K., Petrovskis, E.A. "Stimulated Microbial Reductive Dechlorination following Surfactant Treatment at the Bachman Road Site." Environ. Sci. Technol. 38:5902-5914. 2004.
A pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) was conducted in July 2000 at the Bachman Road site located in Oscoda, MI. The Bachman aquifer is a shallow, relatively homogeneous, unconfined aquifer formation composed primarily of sandy glacial outwash with relatively low organic carbon content (0.02 wt %). A 6 wt % aqueous solution of Tween 80 (a nonionic, food-grade surfactant) was flushed through a localized dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone to recover approximately 19 L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). Post-treatment monitoring revealed PCE concentrations were reduced by up to 2 orders of magnitude within the source zone, and there was no evidence of concentration rebound after more than 450 d. Concentrations of PCE dechlorination products (trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene) 450 d after SEAR operations ceased were more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than pretreatment values, suggesting stimulation of native dechlorination activity. Post-treatment monitoring detected increased concentra tions of volatile fatty acids generated from the fermentation of residual-level Tween 80 surfactant. These field data suggest that Tween 80 not only induced and maintained anaerobiosis but also provided reducing equivalents to reductively dechlorinating populations present in the oligotrophic Bachman aquifer. Experience from this site supports application of staged treatment strategies that couple SEAR and microbial reductive dechlorination to enhance mass removal and reduce contaminant mass flux emanating from treated source zones.